نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد قوچان

2 استادیار، گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم و کشاورزی منابع طبیعی ساری

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

چکیده

تهیه نان فاقد گلوتن با استفاده از غلات عاری از گلوتن برای بیماران سلیاکی که از حساسیت به گلوتن رنج می برند ضروری به نظر می رسد. برای این منظور تاثیر ترکیب آرد ذرت و نخود در غلظت های 20/80، 40/60، 60/40 و 80/20 با 3% صمغ HPMC جهت تهیه این نوع نان مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. جهت بررسی خصوصیات کیفی نان از فاکتورهای حجم مخصوص، دانسیته، میزان حجیم شدن، اندیس شکل، تخلخل، سفتی بافت و بررسی ریز ساختار استفاده شد. بافت نمونه ها در روزهای اول و دوم و بررسی ریز ساختار 24 ساعت پس از پخت مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. به طور کلی آرد نخود با ایجاد شبکه شبه گلوتن در مغز نان باعث افزایش حجم مخصوص میزان حجیم شدن، اندیس شکل و کاهش دانسیته می شود. آرد نخود مقدار رطوبت نان های فاقد گلوتن افزایش داده و در نتیجه از سفتی بافت مغز نان کاسته می شود. به طور کلی بر اساس آزمون های انجام شده مشخص گردیده که فرمولاسیون 20% آرد ذرت+80% آرد نخود بیشترین تاثیر را در بهبود نتایج آزمون های کیفی از خود نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

AACC. 2000. Measurement of bread firmness by universal testing machine. In approved methods of the AACC, 10th edition, MN, USA: American Association of Cereal Chemists.

Ahlborn, G.J., Pike, O.A., Hendrix, S.B., Hess, W.M. & Huber, C.S. 2005. Sensory, mechanical and microscopic evaluation of staling in low-protein and gluten-free breads. Cereal Chemistry, 82: 328-335.

Arendt, E.K., Morrissey, A., Moore, M.M. & Bello, F.D. 2008a. Gluten-free breads. P.289-310. In: Arendt EK and Dal balleo F (eds), gluten-free cereal product and beverages. Academic Press.

Arendt, E.K., Renzetti, S. & Moore, M.M. 2008b. Novel approaches in the design of gluten free cereal product. Food Science and Technology, 22: 43-46.

Armero, E., & Collar, C. 1996. Anti-staling Additives. Flour type and sourdough process effect on functionality of wheat dough's. Journal of Food Science, 61:299-303.

Baardseth, P., Kvaal, K., Lea, P., Ellekjaer, M.R. & Faergestad, E.M. 2000. The effects of bread making process and wheat quality on French bagnettes. Journal of cereal science, 32:73-87.

Bechtel, W.G. & Meisner, D.F. 1954. Staling studies of bread made with flour fractions.VI. Effect of gluten and wheat starch. Cereal Chemistry, 31: 182-187.

Blades, M. 1997.Food allergies and intolerances: an update. Nutrition and Food Science, 4: 146-151.

Brites, C., Trigo, M.G., Santos, C., Collar, C. & Rosell, C.M. 2008. Maize-based gluten-free bread: influence of processing parameters on sensory and instrumental quality. Food bioprocess technology, 3: 707-715.

Catassi, C. & Fasano, A. 2008. Celiac Disease. P.1-22. In: Arendt EK and Dal Balleo F (eds), gluten-free cereal product and beverages. Academic Press.

Cauvin, S.P. & Young, L.S. 2006. Baked products. Blackwell Publishing. 94-98.

Collar, C., Martinez, J.C., & Rossel, C.M. 2001. Lipid binding of fresh and stored formulated wheat breads. Relationship with dough and bread technological performance. Food Science and Technology International, 7: 501-510.

Curic, D., Novotni, D., Skevin, D., Rosell, C.M., Collar, C., Le bail, A., Colic-baric, I. & Gabric, D. 2008. Design of a quality index for the objective evaluation of bread quality: Application to wheat breads using selected bake off technology for bread making. Food Research International, 41: 714-719.

Del_Angel, A.R. & Sotelo, A.1982. Nutritive value of mixtures using chick-peas with wheat, triticale, normal and apaque-2 corns. Journal of Nutrition, 112: 1474-1480.

Gallagher, E., Gormley, T.R. & Arend,t E.K. 2004. Recent advances in the formulation of gluten-free cereal-based product. Food Science and Technology, 15:143-152.

Guarda, A., Rosell, C.M., Benedito, C. & Galotto, M.J. 2004. Different hydrocolloids as bread improvers and antistaling agents. Food Hydrocolloids, 18: 241-247.

Gujral, H.S., Guardiola, I., Carbonell, J.V. & Rosell, C.M. 2003. Effect of cyclodexterinase on dough rheology and bread quality from rice flour. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 51: 3814-3818.

Illg, D.J., Sommerfeldt, J.L. & Boe, A.A. 1987. Chickpeas as a substitute for corn and soybean meal in growing heifer diets. Journal of Dairy Science, 70: 2181-2185.

Kadan, R.S., Robinson, M.G., Thibodeaux, D.P. & Pepperman, A.B. 2001. Texture and other physicochemical properties of whole rice bread. Journal of Food Science, 66: 940-944.

Kim, S.K., & Appolonia, B. 1977. Bread staling studies.I. Effect of protein content on staling rate and bread crumb pasting properties. Cereal chemistry, 54: 207-215.

Lazaridou, A., Duta, D., Papageorgiou, M., Belc, N. & Biliaderis, C.G. 2007. Effects of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality parameters in gluten-free formulations. Journal of Food Engineering, 79: 1033-1047.

Maleki, M., Hoseney, R.C. & Mattern, P.J. 1980. Effect of loaf volume, moisture content and protein quality on softness and staling rate of bread. Cereal Chemistry, 57: 138-140.

Marco, C. & Rosell, C.M. 2008. Breadmaking performance of protein enriched, gluten-free breads. European Food Research and Technology, 227: 1205-1213.

Plessas, S., Pherson, L., Bekatorou, A., Nigam, P. & Koutinas, A.A. 2005. Breadmaking using kefir grains as baker's yeast. Food chemistry, 93: 585-589.

Prentice, N., Cuendet, L.S. & Geddes, W.F. 1954. Studies on bread staling .V. Effect of flour fractions and various starches on the firming of bread crumb. Cereal Chemistry, 31: 188.

Rakkar, P.S. 2007. Development of gluten-free commercial bread. Master of applied science. Auckland University of Technology.

Renzetti, S., Dal Bello, F. & Arendt, E.K. 2008. Microstructure, fundamental rheology and baking characteristics of batters and breads from different gluten-free flours treated with a microbial transglutaminase. Journal of Cereal Science, 48: 33-45.

Rosell, C.M., Rojas, J.A. & Benedito, B.D. 2001. Influence of hydrocolloids on dough rheology and bread quality. Food Hydrocolloids, 15: 75-81.

Sandstedt, R.M. 1961.The functions of starch in the baking of bread. The bakers Digest, 35: 36-44.

Shukla, R. & Cheryan, M. 2001. Zein: The industrial protein from corn. Industrial Crops and Products, 13: 171-192.

Sivaramakrishnan, H.P., Senge, B. & Chatopadhyay, P.K. 2004. Rheological properties of rice dough for making rice bread. Journal of Food Engineering, 62: 37-45.

Steller, W.R. & Bailey, C.H. 1938. The relation of flour strength, soy flour and temperature of storage to the staling of bread. Cereal Chemistry, 15: 391.

Strandine, E.J., Carlin, G.T., Werner, G.A. & Hopper, R.P. 1951. Effect of monoglycerides of starch, flour and bread, a microscopic and chemical study. Cereal Chemistry, 45: 269-279.

Wehrle, K., Crau, H. & Arendt, E. 1997. Effect of lactic acid, acetic acid and table salt on fundamental rheological dough properties of wheat dough. Cereal Chemistry, 74: 739-744.