نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 پژوهشکده علوم و فناوری مواد غذایی جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد

4 گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

5 استاد، گروه مهندسی علوم و صنایع غذایی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

در این تحقیق، از رویۀ سطح پاسخ جهت بهینه‌سازی شرایط اکستروژن استفاده شد. متغیرهای مستقل فرایند شامل آرد کنجالۀ بنه (PDBC) که به‌طور جزئی چربی‌گیری شده است، PDBC (30-10 درصد)، میزان رطوبت (18- 12 درصد)، دمای اکستروژن (180-120 درجۀ سانتی‌گراد) و سرعت چرخش ماردون اکسترودر (220- 120 دور در دقیقه) بود. تأثیر متغیرهای مستقل بر برخی خصوصیات فیزیکی و عملکردی مورد بررسی قرارگرفت، که شامل چگالی توده، نسبت انبساط، سختی بافت، شاخص جذب آب، شاخص حلالیت در آب و شاخص جذب چربی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که افزایش PDBC خصوصیات فیزیکی و عملکردی اسنک حجیم‌شده را بهبود بخشید. چگالی توده با افزایش PDBC به‌طور قابل ملاحظه‌ای افزایش یافت. جایگزینی بخشی از آرد ذرت توسط PDBC سبب افزایش مقدار فیبر گردیده و میانگین اندازۀ سلول‌های هوایی کاهش یافت و حفره‌ها در دیوارۀ سلولی ایجاد شدند. به‌علاوه، با افزایش میزان PDBC سختی بافت نیز افزایش یافت. با افزودن PDBC شاخص جذب آب و شاخص انحلال در آب به‌ترتیب کاهش و افزایش یافتند. شاخص جذب روغن نیز با افزایش PDBC و دمای اکسترودر افزایش یافت. از بین متغیرهای مستقل مورد مطالعه، PDBC معنی‌دارترین تأثیر را بر تمامی پاسخ‌ها در سطح اطمینان 95 درصد داشت. شرایط بهینه برای تولید اسنک حاوی PDBC شامل میزان رطوبت 17/45 درصد، PDBC 21/14 درصد، سرعت چرخش ماردون 160 دور در دقیقه و درجه‌حرارت 133/2 درجۀ سانتی‌‌گراد بود.

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