Document Type : Original Paper


Center of Excellence in Native Natural Hydrocolloids of Iran, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


In this study, the effects of different amounts of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (0 to 0.2%), cress seed gum (CSG) (0 to 0.2%), whey protein concentrate (WPC) (2 to 8%), and whipping time (WT) (2 to 8 min) on the physical and rheological properties of camel milk whipped cream were investigated. The results showed that with increasing the WT and WPC levels, overrun increased and samples with higher CMC had higher overrun than samples with higher CSG. The results also showed that the effect of different levels of WPC on the overrun of the samples was highly dependent on the whipping time and different concentrations of gums. With increasing the WPC and WT (in high WPC values), the foam stability of the samples increased and changing the ratio of CSG and CMC gums had no significant effect on the foam stability. The results of the back extrusion test showed that with increasing the WT and CSG, the hardness and adhesiveness of the samples increased. The results showed that with increasing the WPC and WT, the infinite and zero shear rate viscosities increased, while with increasing the WPC, the relaxation time of the samples decreased. The highest area of hysteresis was related to the samples containing the same amounts of CMC and CSG, but increasing the WPC reduced the area of hysteresis. To optimize the whipped cream formulation, the overrun, foam stability, hardness, consistency, and infinite shear rate viscosity were considered to be maximum, and adhesiveness and flow behavior index were adjusted to be minimum. According to the optimization results, the sample containing 0.15% CMC, 0.05% CSG, 2% WPC and produced with 7.2 min WT was the optimized formulation.


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