Integrated Encapsulation of Fish Oil and Vitamin E with Complex Coaservation Technique and its Efficiency Optimization by Response Surface Method (RSM)

Document Type : Original Paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Fisheries Department, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Fisheries Department, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran


In this study, fish oil and vitamin E were nanoencapsulated using polymeric materials of gelatin and Arabic gum as wall materials applyingcomplex coaservation technique and optimization process with the aid of the response surface method (RSM) in form of central composite design (CCD). The effects of the three independent variables including fish oil amount (1, 3 and 5%), biopolymer amount (1, 3 and 5%) and homogenizer speed (7000, 9000 and 11000 rpm) on dependent variables such as surface oil, encapsulated oil, encapsulation efficiency and particle size were investigated. The results showed that homogenization speed of 7000 rpm is not suitable for producing nanocapsules below 100 nm. In addition, the percentage of fish oil and the speed of homogenizer are effective on the size of the produced nanocapsules. Also, produced nanocapsules in treatments in which a higher percentage of oil was used compared to treatments with lower oil percentages, showed higher surface oil. The encapsulation efficiency was measured between 56.29% and 98.76%. In this research, optimum treatment was introduced as the one with 1% fish oil, 1% total biopolymer and 7000 rpm homogenizer speed in which its encapsulation efficiency was recorded as 97.97%.


Alipour, A., Kocheki, A., Kadkhodai, R., & Varidi, M. (2015). The effect of Alyssum homolocarpum seed gum–whey protein concentrate on stability of oil–in–water emulsion. Food Science and Technology, 12(48), 163-174. (in Persian)
Arab-Tehrany, E., Jacquot, M., Gaiani, C., Imran, M., Desobry, S., & Linder, M. (2012). Beneficial effects and oxidative stability of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 25(1), 24-33. doi:
Aziz, S., Gill, J., Dutilleul, P., Neufeld, R., & Kermasha, S. (2014). Microencapsulation of krill oil using complex coacervation. Journal of Microencapsulation, 31(8), 774-784. doi:
Azizanbari, C., Ghanbarzadeh, B., Hamishekar, h., & Hosseini, M. (2013). Gelan-Caseinate Nanocomplexes as Carriers of Omega-3 Fatty Acids: investigation of Particle Size, Rheology and Encapsulation Efficiency. Journal of Technology and Food Preservation, 5(2), 19-42 (in Persian).
Bahrani, S., Mohammad Hasani, Z., Ghanbarzadeh, B., & Hamishekar, H. (2013, October). Investigating the effect of pH on particle size, stability and capsulation efficiency of bio polymer nano-complexes of casein-pectin containing omega-3. Paper presented at the 21st National Congress of Food Science and Technology, Shiraz. (in Persian)
Chang, P.-S., Lee, J., & Lee, J. L. J. (2005). Development of a new colorimetric method determining the yield of microencapsulation of α-tocopherol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(19), 7385-7389. doi:
Choi, M.-J., Ruktanonchai, U., Min, S.-G., Chun, J.-Y., & Soottitantawat, A. (2010). Physical characteristics of fish oil encapsulated by β-cyclodextrin using an aggregation method or polycaprolactone using an emulsion–diffusion method. Food Chemistry, 119(4), 1694-1703. doi:
García-Moreno, P. J., Guadix, A., Guadix, E. M., & Jacobsen, C. (2016). Physical and oxidative stability of fish oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with fish protein hydrolysates. Food Chemistry, 203, 124-135. doi:
Garg, M., Wood, L., Singh, H., & Moughan, P. (2006). Means of delivering recommended levels of long chain n‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human diets. Journal of Food Science, 71(5), R66-R71. doi:
Ghorbani Hassan Sariei, A., Shahidi, F., Bahadorghousi, H., & Motamedzadegan, A. (2012, October). Potentials of different omega-3 fatty acids in food enrichments. Paper presented at the 2nd Food Security Conference, (in Persian)
Hogan, S. A., McNamee, B. F., O’Riordan, E. D., & O’Sullivan, M. (2001). Emulsification and microencapsulation properties of sodium caseinate/carbohydrate blends. International Dairy Journal, 11(3), 137-144. doi:
Hosseini, S., Sadeghi-Mahoonak, A., Jafari, S. m., Ghorbani, M., & Salimi, A. (2016). Optimization of Emulsion of Orange Skin Oil - Mucilage of Grain by Using RSM and Investigating the Stability of obtained microencapsulated Powder. Journal of Food Science & Technology, 13(59), 171-180 (in Persian).
Hosseini, S. F., Zandi, M., Rezaei, M., & Farahmandghavi, F. (2013). Two-step method for encapsulation of oregano essential oil in chitosan nanoparticles: preparation, characterization and in vitro release study. Carbohydrate Polymers, 95(1), 50-56. doi:
Jafari, S. M., Assadpoor, E., Bhandari, B., & He, Y. (2008). Nano-particle encapsulation of fish oil by spray drying. Food Research International, 41(2), 172-183. doi:
Esfahani, R., Jafarpour, S. A., & Jafari, S. M. (2016). Efficiency evaluation of nanoencapsulation of omega-3 fatty acids with gelatin-Arabic gum complex using coaservation technique. Scientefic Journal of Iranian Fisheries, 25(2), 29-42 (in Persian).
Karaca, A. C., Nickerson, M., & Low, N. H. (2013). Microcapsule production employing chickpea or lentil protein isolates and maltodextrin: Physicochemical properties and oxidative protection of encapsulated flaxseed oil. Food Chemistry, 139(1-4), 448-457. doi:
Kaushik, P., Dowling, K., Barrow, C. J., & Adhikari, B. (2015). Microencapsulation of omega-3 fatty acids: A review of microencapsulation and characterization methods. Journal of Functional Foods, 19, 868-881. doi:
Klinkesorn, U., Sophanodora, P., Chinachoti, P., Decker, E. A., & McClements, D. J. (2006). Characterization of spray-dried tuna oil emulsified in two-layered interfacial membranes prepared using electrostatic layer-by-layer deposition. Food Research International, 39(4), 449-457. doi:
Lin, C.-Y., & Lin, B.-Y. (2015). Fatty acid characteristics of isochrysis galbana lipids extracted using a microwave-assisted method. Energies, 8(2), 1154-1165. doi:
Liu, S., Low, N., & Nickerson, M. T. (2010). Entrapment of flaxseed oil within gelatin-gum arabic capsules. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 87(7), 809-815. doi:
Mehrad, B., Shabanpour, B., Jafari, S. M., & Pourashouri, P. (2015). Characterization of dried fish oil from Menhaden encapsulated by spray drying. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation, 8(1), 57-69.
Mohammadzadeh, H., Koocheki, A., Kadkhodaee, R., & Razavi, S. M. (2013). Physical and flow properties of d-limonene-in-water emulsions stabilized with whey protein concentrate and wild sage (Salvia macrosiphon) seed gum. Food Research International, 53(1), 312-318. doi:
Pourashouri, P. (2012). Evaluation of the physicochemical and oxidative stability of microcapsules containing oil fish and omega-3. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources (in Persian).  
Sharifi, A. (2016). Microcapsulations of fish oil and clove oil via coaservation method by using gelatin of fish and gum Arabic. (Unpublished master's thesis), Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. (in Persian)  
Wang, B., Adhikari, B., & Barrow, C. J. (2014). Optimisation of the microencapsulation of tuna oil in gelatin–sodium hexametaphosphate using complex coacervation. Food Chemistry, 158, 358-365. doi:
Xiao, Z., Liu, W., Zhu, G., Zhou, R., & Niu, Y. (2014). Production and characterization of multinuclear microcapsules encapsulating lavender oil by complex coacervation. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 29(3), 166-172. doi:
Zhang, K., Zhang, H., Hu, X., Bao, S., & Huang, H. (2012). Synthesis and release studies of microalgal oil-containing microcapsules prepared by complex coacervation. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 89, 61-66. doi:
Zhang, Z.-Q., Pan, C.-H., & Chung, D. (2011). Tannic acid cross-linked gelatin–gum arabic coacervate microspheres for sustained release of allyl isothiocyanate: Characterization and in vitro release study. Food Research International, 44(4), 1000-1007. doi:
Zuidam, N. J., & Shimoni, E. (2010). Overview of microencapsulates for use in food products or processes and methods to make them Encapsulation technologies for active food ingredients and food processing (pp. 3-29): Springer.
Volume 8, Issue 1
April 2019
Pages 53-66
  • Receive Date: 20 January 2018
  • Revise Date: 10 June 2018
  • Accept Date: 17 June 2018